Whitepapers

  • Whitepaper: The Effects of Cytokines on T Cell Differentiation

    The Effects of Cytokines on T Cell Differentiation

    Amanda Flies, Ph.D.

    Cytokine-whitepaper-image

    Click here to download the full pdf.

    Abstract


    The T cell is an important member of the adaptive branch of the immune system, with many varied, sometimes overlapping, roles. One mechanism by which the immune system is able to provide a defense against the wide range of pathogens and conditions affecting the body is by differentiation of this key cell type into many distinct lineages and subsets, each with a characteristic profile of effector molecules with distinct functions. The complex nature of immunity to the range of potential pathogens is mirrored by the complexity of T cell lineages and subsets which have evolved to defend against them. The many potential combinations of antigen-stimulation and co-stimulatory molecules, cell-cell interactions, and the cytokine milieu in which T cells are activated all contribute to the cell’s fate, and therefore the cell’s function in the immune system as a whole.

  • Whitepaper: Immune Checkpoints and the T cell

    Immune Checkpoints and the T cell

    Amanda Flies, Ph.D.

    Figure-2

    CTLA-4 prevents T cell activation by competitively inhibiting the co-stimulatory signal through CD28, as CD28’s ligands (B7-1 and B7-2) have a higher affinity/avidity for CTLA-4. CTLA-4 also transmits an inhibitory signal intracellularly, which reduces proliferation and cytokine production.

    Click here to download the full pdf.

     

    Abstract


    Immune checkpoints are stimulatory or inhibitory signals that play a major role in regulation of the immune system’s function. Interactions between surface molecules on immune cells lead to activation, differentiation and effector function, or inhibition of these activities. T cells, an important member of the adaptive branch of the immune system, are greatly affected by interactions between immune checkpoint molecules, including CD28 ↔ B7-1/B7-2 ↔ CTLA-4 interactions, PD-1 ↔ PD-L1/PD-L2, LAG-3 ↔ MHC, and TIM-3 ↔ galectin-9 interactions. Proliferation, clonal expansion, differentiation into T cell subsets, and effector functions all depend on stimulation or inhibition through these surface molecules. Thus, regulation of T cells by way of blocking or stimulating the immune checkpoints can have significant effects on the function of the immune system. Recent advances in immunotherapy targeting immune checkpoint molecules have demonstrated efficacy in modulating immune reactions to self-tissues in both cancer immunity and autoimmunity. Continued research into this growing field of study is critical for advancing immunotherapeutic treatments against human diseases using immune checkpoint molecules.


     

    Immune Checkpoint Reagents Available from Cell Sciences:

    CTLA-4 Fusion Proteins

    Catalog No. Description
    CRH030 Recombinant Human CTLA-4/CD152:Fc Chimera
    CRH031 Recombinant Human CTLA-4/CD152:Fc Chimera Non-Lytic
    CRH032 Recombinant Human CTLA-4/CD152:Mouse Fc Chimera
    CRM035 Recombinant Mouse CTLA-4/CD152:Fc Chimera
    CRM036 Recombinant Mouse CTLA-4/CD152:Fc Chimera Non-Lytic

     

    PD-1 - PD-L1/2 Reagents

    Catalog No. Description
    CRH046 Recombinant Human PD-1/CD279:Fc Chimera
    CRH047 Recombinant Human PD-1/CD279:Fc Chimera Non-Lytic
    CRH036 Recombinant Human B7-H1/PD-L1/CD274:Fc Chimera
    CRH037 Recombinant Human B7-H1/PD-L1/CD274:Fc Chimera Non-Lytic
    CRH033 Recombinant Human PD-L2/CD273:Fc Chimera
    CRH034 Recombinant Human PD-L2/CD273:Fc Chimera Non-Lytic
    CRH035 Recombinant Human PD-L2/CD273:Mouse Fc Chimera
    CRM044 Recombinant Mouse PD-1/CD279:Fc Chimera
    CRM038 Recombinant Mouse B7-H1/PD-L1/CD274:Fc Chimera
    CRM039 Recombinant Mouse B7-H1/PD-L1/CD274:Fc Chimera Non-Lytic
    CRM037 Recombinant Mouse PD-L2/CD273:Fc Chimera

     

    LAG-3 Reagents

    Catalog No. Description
    CMH003 Mouse Anti-Human LAG-3 Clone 17B4 Biotin mAb
    CMH004 Mouse Anti-Human LAG-3 Clone 17B4 Blocking Azide Free mAb
    CMH005 Mouse Anti-Human LAG-3 Clone 17B4 FITC mAb
    CMH006 Mouse Anti-Human LAG-3 Clone 17B4 Blocking mAb
    CMH007 Mouse Anti-Human LAG-3 Clone 11E3 Blocking mAb
    CMH008 Mouse Anti-Human LAG-3 Clone 11E3 Blocking Azide Free mAb
    CRH048 Recombinant Human LAG-3:Fc Chimera
    CRM045 Recombinant Mouse LAG-3:Fc Chimera

     

    TIM-3 Reagents

    Catalog No. Description
    CRH050 Recombinant Human Tim-3:Fc Chimera
    CRH051 Recombinant Human Tim-3:Mouse Fc Chimera

     

    Additional Immune Checkpoint Reagents

    Catalog No. Description
    CRH022 Recombinant Human Multimeric TNF-alpha
    CRH023 Recombinant Human Multimeric FasL
    CRH024 Recombinant Human Multimeric CD40L
    CRH025 Recombinant Human Multimeric APRIL
    CRH026 Recombinant Human Progranulin FLAG
    CRH027 Recombinant Human Progranulin
    CRH028 Recombinant Human B7-H4:Fc Chimera
    CRH029 Recombinant Human B7-H4:Mouse Fc Chimera
    CRH038 Recombinant Human B7-H2/CD275:Fc Chimera
    CRH039 Recombinant Human B7-H2/CD275:Fc Chimera Non-Lytic
    CRH040 Recombinant Human B7-H2/CD275:Mouse Fc  Chimera
    CRH041 Recombinant Human B7-H3/CD276:Fc Chimera
    CRH042 Recombinant Human B7-H3/CD276:Mouse Fc Chimera
    CRH043 Recombinant Human ICOS/CD278:Fc Chimera
    CRH044 Recombinant Human ICOS/CD278:Fc Chimera Non-Lytic
    CRH045 Recombinant Human ICOS/CD278:Mouse Fc Chimera
    CRH049 Recombinant Human Tim-1:Fc Chimera
    CRH051 Recombinant Human Tim-3:Mouse Fc Chimera
    CRH052 Recombinant Human Tim-4:Fc Chimera
    CRM030 Recombinant Mouse Multimeric CD40L
    CRM031 Recombinant Mouse Multimeric OX40L
    CRM032 Recombinant Mouse Multimeric APRIL
    CRM033 Recombinant Mouse Progranulin
    CRM034 Recombinant Mouse B7-H4:Fc Chimera
    CRM040 Recombinant Mouse B7-H2/CD275:Fc Chimera
    CRM041 Recombinant Mouse B7-H2/CD275:Fc Chimera Non-Lytic
    CRM042 Recombinant Mouse B7-H3/CD276:Fc Chimera
    CRM043 Recombinant Mouse ICOS/CD278:Fc Chimera
    CRM046 Recombinant Mouse Tim-4:Human Fc Chimera
    CRM047 Recombinant Mouse CD137:Human Fc Chimera

     

  • Whitepaper: LBP as an Indicator of Disease States

    Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Protein (LBP) as an Indicator of Disease States in Multiple Species

    Amanda Flies, Ph.D. and Thomas H. Ermak, Ph.D.

    LBP-activity

    LBP binds multimers of LPS in the blood or other bodily fluids and transfers LPS monomers to CD14 on the surface of an innate immune cell. LPS is detected at the cell’s surface by a protein complex involving CD14, MD2 and TLR4, which signals through its intracellular domain. Recognition of bacterial products such as LPS may activate innate immune cells to produce inflammatory mediators.

    Abstract
    Lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) is a 58-kD glycoprotein involved in the acute-phase immunologic response to Gram-negative bacterial infections. It binds with high affinity to the lipid A portion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which Gram-negative bacteria express on their outer membrane. The presence of LBP in blood and bodily fluids is an indicator of bacterial infection, and as such is a useful marker of a number of disease states in humans, cows, mice and other animals.
    As a method of detecting this important acute-phase protein, ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) offers specificity and reliable quantitation of the protein levels in samples such as blood, serum, lavage fluid, or milk. The Cell Sciences® Multispecies LBP ELISA kit maintains specificity for human LBP, while also providing flexibility to assess a broad range of LBP homologs in other species.

    Click here to download the full pdf.

    LBP Reagents offered by Cell Sciences

    CKH113  Human LBP Multispecies Reactive ELISA Kit

    CKM043  Mouse LBP ELISA Kit

    CML002  Mouse Anti-Human LBP Clone biG 42 mAb†

    CML003  Mouse Anti-Human LBP Clone biG 48 mAb†

    CML004  Mouse Anti-Human LBP Clone biG 412 mAb*

    CML007  Mouse Anti-Human LBP Clone biG 43 mAb†

    CPC402A  Rabbit Anti-Human LBP pAb

    CML001  Mouse Anti-Mouse LBP Clone biG 33 mAb*

    CML005  Mouse Anti-Mouse LBP Clone biG 35 mAb†

    CPC105  Rabbit Anti-Mouse LBP pAb

    CRL701  Recombinant Human LBP

    CRL700  Recombinant Mouse LBP

    * Inhibits binding to CD14        † Does not inhibit binding to CD14

     

  • Whitepaper: Quantitation of LONG®R3 IGF-I

    Quantitation of LONG®R3 IGF-I during production and purification of recombinant proteins from cell culture

    Thomas H. Ermak, Ph.D. and Amanda Flies, Ph.D.

    This paper discusses the use of a recently developed ELISA kit to measure the IGF1 analog LONG®R3 IGF-I in mammalian cell culture media during the production of recombinant proteins. The structures of LONG®R3 IGF-I, Native IGF1 and Insulin are compared, and an immunoassay for the quantitation of LONG®R3 IGF-I is described.

    Long-LR3-IGF1

    Abstract
    LONG®R3 IGF-I is an analog of human insulin-like growth factor 1 that has been bioengineered for use in cell culture during production of recombinant proteins in human cells. LONG®R3 IGF-I comprises the 70 amino acids of IGF-1 with an arginine substitution for glutamic acid at amino acid 3 and a 13 amino acid extension peptide at the N-terminal end for a total of 83 amino acids. LONG®R3 IGF-I has a lower affinity for IGF binding proteins increasing its bioavailability to the IFG-1 receptor present on cells in culture. When supplemented in serum-free medium, it promotes cell proliferation and increases cell survival and productivity through better proliferative and anti-apoptotic signaling. A LONG®R3 IGF-I ELISA kit was recently developed to monitor the levels of LONG®R3 IGF-I in culture medium during the production process. The assay measures concentrations of LONG®R3 IGF-I in the 0.31 to 40 ng/ml range. The ready-to-use ELISA kit facilitates measurement of LONG®R3 IGF-I during optimization of the cell culture process and downstream processing purification.

    Download the full whitepaper here

    LONG®R3 IGF-I ELISA and Related Products

    CKH194 Human LONG®R3 IGF-I ELISA Kit
    CRH060 LONG®R3 IGF-I (Recombinant Human) Lyophilized
    CRH061 LONG®R3 IGF-I (Recombinant Human) Liquid
    MAN100 Mouse Anti-Human LR3 IGF-1 Clone 6H5 mAb
    MAO100 Mouse Anti-Human LR3 IGF-1 Clone 1A7 Biotin mAb

    LONG® is a trademark of Repligen Corporation.