Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is a multifunctional proinflammatory cytokine that belongs to the TNF superfamily. TNF-alpha is secreted by macrophages, monocytes, neutrophils, T cells, NK-cells following their stimulation by bacterial LPS. TNF-alpha activates signals through two receptors, TNFR1, which is expressed on most cell types, and TNFR2, which is expressed mainly on immune cells. TNF-alpha can have many functions including stimulation of phagocytosis in macrophages, chemoattraction of neutrophils, increase in insulin resistance, and inducing fever, cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, lipid metabolism, and coagulation.
Recombinant Human TNF-alpha is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 158 amino acids.
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