Immune Checkpoints and the T cell

Immune Checkpoints and the T cell

Amanda Flies, Ph.D.

CTLA-4 prevents T cell activation by competitively inhibiting the co-stimulatory signal through CD28, as CD28’s ligands (B7-1 and B7-2) have a higher affinity/avidity for CTLA-4. CTLA-4 also transmits an inhibitory signal intracellularly, which reduces proliferation and cytokine production.

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Quantitation of LONG®R3 IGF-I

Quantitation of LONG®R3 IGF-I during production and purification of recombinant proteins from cell culture

Thomas H. Ermak, Ph.D. and Amanda Flies, Ph.D.

This paper discusses the use of a recently developed ELISA kit to measure the IGF1 analog LONG®R3 IGF-I in mammalian cell culture media during the production of recombinant proteins. The structures of LONG®R3 IGF-I, Native IGF1 and Insulin are compared, and an immunoassay for the quantitation of LONG®R3 IGF-I is described.

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